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each /i: tʃ / determiner, pron. (abbr. ea) every individual person or thing Each lesson lasts an hour. Each of the lessons lasts an hour. The lessons each last an hour. He gave the children a present each. These T-shirts are £ 5 each. ▶ każdy
sobie nawzajem, siebie nawzajem
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each other, each other
ˌeach ˈother pron. (used for saying that A does the same thing to B as B does to A) Emma and Dave love each other very much. We looked at each other. ▶ się siebie sobie (nawzajem) nawzajem
ochoczy, chętny
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□ eagerly /; US / adv. ▶ ochoczo chętnie gorliwie —eagerness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ zapał gorliwość
eager /ˈi:ɡə(r); US / adj. eager (to do sth); eager (for sth) full of desire or interest We’re all eager to start work on the new project. eager for success ▶ ochoczy chętny gorliwy  SYNONYM  keen
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eagle /ˈi:ɡl; US / noun [countable] a very large bird that can see very well. It eats small birds and animals. ▶ orzeł
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2[sing.] an ear (for sth) an ability to recognize and repeat sounds, especially in music or language Kimiko has a good ear for languages. ▶ słuch (muzykalne) ucho 3[countable] the top part of a plant that produces grain an ear of corn ▶ kłos
ear /ɪə(r); US / noun ⇨ 1 [countable] one of the two parts of the body of a person or an animal that are used for hearing Elephants have large ears. He pulled his hat down over his ears. ▶ ucho
ból ucha
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an earache
earache /ˈɪəreɪk; US / noun [uncountable] a pain in your ear I’ve got earache. ▶ ból u-cha/szu ⇨ note at ache
błona bębenkowa
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eardrum /ˈɪədrʌm; US / noun [countable] a thin piece of skin inside the ear that is tightly stretched and that allows you to hear sound ▶ błona bębenkowa bębenek
płatek ucha / płatek nosa
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earlobe / nasal lobe
ˈear lobe noun [countable] the round soft part at the bottom of your ear ▶ płatek (ucha)
wczesny, początkowy
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early, initial
2 before the usual or expected time Spring is early (przyszła za wcześnie) this year. ▶ wczesny
1 near the beginning of a period of time, a piece of work, a series, etc. Come in the early afternoon. I think John’s in his early twenties. The project is still only in its early stages. ▶ wczesny początkowy
przeznaczać, wyznaczać
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earmark /ˈɪəmɑ: k; US / verb [transitive] earmark sb/sth (for sth/sb) to choose sb/sth to do sth in the future Everybody says Ania has been earmarked as the next manager. ▶ przeznaczać wyznaczać
zarabiać, przynosić
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to earn, bring
How much interest will my savings earn in this account? ▶ przynosić (np. procent, zysk) 3 to win the right to sth, for example by working hard The team’s victory today has earned them a place in the final. You’ve earned a holiday. ▶zasługiwać na coś
to get money by working How much does a dentist earn? I earn £ 20 000 a year. It’s hard to earn a living as an artist. ▶ zarabiać utrzymywać się (z czegoś) 2 to get money as profit or interest on money you have in a bank, lent to sb, etc.
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earnings /ˈɜ: nɪŋz; US / noun [pl.] the money that a person earns by working Average earnings have increased by 5%. ▶ zarobki
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earphones /ˈɪəfəʊnz; US / noun [pl.] a piece of equipment that fits over or in the ears and is used for listening to music, the radio, etc. ▶ słuchawki
przenikliwy (o dżwięku), przekuwanie uszu
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ear-piercing1 adj. [only before a noun] very high, loud and unpleasant an ear-piercing scream ▶ (dźwięk) przenikliwy rozdzierający (dźwięk) przeraźliwy
stoper, zatyczka do ucha
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earplug /ˈɪəplʌɡ; US / noun [usually pl.] a piece of soft material that you put into your ear to keep out noise or water ▶ zatyczka do ucha stoper
kolczyk, klips
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earring /ˈɪərɪŋ; US / noun [countable] a piece of jewellery that is worn in or on the lower part of the ear Are these clip-on earrings or are they for pierced ears? ▶ kolczyk klips
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the earth/ earth
4[countable, usually sing.] (US ground) a wire that makes a piece of electrical equipment safer by connecting it to the ground The green and yellow wire is the earth. ▶ uziemienie
1 (the earth; the Earth) [sin] the planet life on earth The earth goes round the sun. ▶ ziemia Ziemia 2 [sing.] the surface of the world; land The spaceship fell towards earth. I could feel the earth shake when the earthquake started. ▶ ziemia
uziemiać (elektrycznie)
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earth2 /ɜ:ɵ; US / (US ground) verb [transitive] to make a piece of electrical equipment safer by connecting it to the ground with a wire Make sure the plug is earthed. ▶ uziemiać
trzęsienie ziemi
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an earthquake
earthquake /ˈɜ:ɵkweɪk; US / (also informal quake) noun [countable] sudden, violent movement of the earth’s surface Thousands of people were killed and many more left homeless by the earthquake. ▶ trzęsienie ziemi
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earthworm /ˈɜ:ɵwɜ: m; US / noun [countable] a small, long, thin animal with no legs or eyes that lives in the soil ▶ dżdżownica glista
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 IDIOMS  (be/feel) at (your) ease to be/feel comfortable, relaxed, etc. They were all so kind and friendly that I felt completely at ease. ▶ być/czuć się spokojnym być zrelaksowanym ⇨ adjective easy
ease1 /i: z; US / noun [uncountable] a lack of difficulty She answered the questions with ease. ▶ łatwość
uśmierzać, zelżeć
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soothe, ease
2[intransitive, transitive] to become or make sth less painful or serious The pain should ease by this evening. What can I take to ease this headache? The tension has eased. ▶ zelżeć łagodzić ustępować uśmierzać sprawiać ulgę
1 [transitive] to move sth slowly and gently He eased (ostrożnie wsunął) the key into the lock. ▶ przesuwać ostrożnie wysuwać ostrożnie
sztaluga malarska
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painting easel
easel /ˈi: zl; US / noun [countable] a wooden frame that holds a picture while it is being painted ▶ sztaluga
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2easily the best, worst, nicest, etc. without doubt It’s easily his best novel. ▶ z pewnością bez wątpienia □ easiness /; US / noun [uncountable] ▶ łatwość
easily /ˈi: zəli; US / adv. ⇨ POSŁUCHAJ NAGRAŃ PRZYKŁADÓW 1 without difficulty I can easily ring up and check the time. ▶ z łatwością łatwo
wschodni, ze wschodu
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□ east adv. to or towards the east They headed east. We live east of the city. Is London east of Oxford? ▶ na wschód/wschodzie
east2 /i: st; US / adj. 1(also East) [only before a noun] in the east the east coast ▶ wschodni 2 (used about a wind) coming from the east ▶ wschodni ze wschodu
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2(the east; the East) the part of any country, city, etc. that is further to the east than the other parts Norwich is in the east of England. ▶ wschód 3(the East) the countries of Asia, for example China and Japan ▶ Wschód
1(also the east) the direction you look towards in order to see the sun rise; one of the points of the compass Which way is east? a cold wind from the east Which county is to the east of Oxfordshire? ▶ wschód
wschodni, ze wschodu
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2 (used about a wind) coming from the east ▶ wschodni ze wschodu □ east adv. to or towards the east They headed east. We live east of the city. Is London east of Oxford? ▶ na wschód/wschodzie
east2 /i: st; US / adj. 1(also East) [only before a noun] in the east the east coast ▶ wschodni
wielkanoc, wielkanocny
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Easter, Easter
Easter /ˈi: stə(r); US / noun [uncountable] a festival on a Sunday in March or April when Christians celebrate Christ’s return to life; the time before and after Easter Sunday the Easter holidays Are you going away at Easter? ▶ Wielkanoc wielkanocny
jajko wielkanocne
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Easter egg
ˈEaster egg noun [countable] an egg, usually made of chocolate, that you give as a present at Easter ▶ jajko wielkanocne pisanka
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eastern (also Eastern) /ˈi: stən; US / adj. 1 [only before a noun] (abbr. E) of, in or from the east of a place Eastern Scotland the eastern shore of the lake ▶ wschodni 2 from or connected with the countries of the East Eastern cookery wschodni
łatwy, spokojny
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2 comfortable, relaxed and not worried an easy life My mind’s easier now. ▶ spokojny  OPPOSITE  uneasy
easy1 /ˈi: zi; US / adj. (easier; easiest) ⇨ 1 not difficult an easy question It isn’t easy to explain the system./The system isn’t easy to explain. Tego systemu nie da się łatwo wytłumaczyć. ▶ łatwy  OPPOSITE  hard
beztroski, niefrasobliwy
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ˌeasy-ˈgoing adj. (used about a person) calm, relaxed and not easily worried or upset by what other people do Her parents are very easy-going. They let her do what she wants. ▶ niefrasobliwy łatwy w pożyciu beztroski  SYNONYM  laid-back
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to eat
2 [intransitive] to have a meal What time shall we eat? ▶ jeść (np. obiad)
1 [intransitive, transitive] to put food into your mouth, then bite and swallow it Who ate all the biscuits? [transitive] She doesn’t eat properly. No wonder she’s so thin. Eat your dinner up (zjedz wszystko, co masz na talerzu), Joe. ▶ jeść
osoba, która je coś w dany sposób
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eater /ˈi: tə(r)/ noun [coun] a person who eats in a particular way We’re not great meat eaters in our family. My uncle’s a big eater (lubi dużo zjeść). She’s a fussy eater. Jest wybredna w jedzeniu. ▶ osoba, która je coś w jakiś sposób
okap na zewnatrz budynku
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eaves /i: vz; US / noun [pl.] the edges of a roof that stick out over the walls There’s a bird’s nest under the eaves. ▶ okap
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eavesdrop /ˈi: vzdrɒp; US / verb [intransitive] (eavesdropping; eavesdropped) eavesdrop (on sb/sth) to listen secretly to other people talking They caught her eavesdropping on their conversation. ▶ podsłuchiwać
odpływać (o morzu)
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2ebb (away) (used about a feeling, etc.) to become weaker The crowd’s enthusiasm began to ebb. ▶ słabnąć
ebb /eb; US / verb [intransitive] 1 (used about sea water) to flow away from the land, which happens twice a day ▶ (morze) odpływać (woda morska podczas odpływu) opadać  SYNONYM  go out
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ebony /ˈebəni; US / noun [uncountable] a hard black wood ▶ heban
dziwaczny, ekscentryczny
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□ eccentric noun [countable] She’s just an old eccentric. ▶ dziwak ekscentryk —eccentricity /ˌeksenˈtrɪsəti; US / noun [countable, uncountable] (pl. eccentricities) ▶ dziwactwo ekscentryczność
eccentric /ɪkˈsentrɪk; US / adj. (used about people or their behaviour) strange or unusual People said he was mad but I think he was just slightly eccentric. ▶ dziwaczny ekscentryczny
szczebel w hierarchi
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echelon /ˈeʃəlɒn; US / noun [countable, usually pl.] a rank or position of authority in an organization or a society the lower/upper/top/higher echelons of the Civil Service ▶ szczebel (w hierarchii)
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echo1 /ˈekəʊ; US / noun [countable] (pl. echoes) a sound that is repeated as it is sent back off a surface such as the wall of a tunnel I could hear the echo of footsteps somewhere in the distance. ▶ echo
wracać echem
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2[intransitive, transitive] echo sth (back); echo (with/to sth) to repeat or send back a sound; to be full of a particular sound The tunnel echoed back their calls. The hall echoed with their laughter. ▶ odbijać się (np. echem)
1 [intransitive] (used about a sound) to be repeated; to come back as an echo Their footsteps echoed in the empty church. ▶ (dźwięk) odbijać się wracać echem powodować echo
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eclair /ɪˈkleə(r); US / noun [countable] a type of long thin cake, usually filled with cream and covered with chocolate ▶ (ciastko) ekler eklerek eklerka
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□ eclectically /-tɪkli; US / adv. Her work draws eclectically on psychoanalysis and mythology. ▶ eklektycznie —eclecticism /ɪˈklektɪsɪzəm; US / noun [uncountable] Critics praised the originality and eclecticism of her work. ▶ eklektyzm
eclectic /ɪˈklektɪk; US / adj. (formal) not following one style or set of ideas but choosing from or using a wide variety She has very eclectic tastes in literature. His house is an eclectic mixture of the antique and the modern. ▶ eklektyczny
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2[sing., uncountable] the loss of a person’s importance, success, etc. ▶ usunięcie w cień przyćmienie
eclipse1 /ɪˈklɪps; US / noun 1 [countable] an occasion when the moon or the sun seems to completely or partly disappear, because one of them is passing between the other and the earth a total/partial eclipse of the sun ▶ zaćmienie
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eclipse2 /ɪˈklɪps; US / verb [transitive] 1 (used about the moon, etc.) to cause an eclipse of the sun, etc. ▶ zaćmiewać 2 (used about a person) to make another person seem less interesting, important, etc. ▶ przyćmiewać (kogoś)
przyjazny środowisku
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eco-friendly /ˈikəʊ frendli; US / adj. not harmful to the environment eco-friendly products/fuel ▶ przyjazny środowisku
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□ ecological /ˌi: kəˈlɒdʒɪkl; US / adj. The oil spill caused an ecological disaster. ▶ ekologiczny —ecologically /-kli; US / adv. ▶ ekologicznie
ecology /iˈkɒlədʒi; US / noun [uncountable] the relationship between living things and their surroundings; the study of this subject ▶ ekologia
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ecologist /iˈkɒlədʒɪst; US / noun [countable] a person who studies or is an expert in ecology ▶ ekolog
ekonomiczny, gospodarczy
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economic, economic
2 producing a profit The mine was closed because it was not economic. ▶ rentowny przynoszący zysk
1 [only before a noun] connected with the supply of money, business, industry, etc. the government’s economic policy The country faces growing economic problems. ▶ ekonomiczny gospodarczy
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□ economically /-kli; US / adv. The train service could be run more economically. ▶ oszczędnie gospodarnie
economical /ˌi: kəˈnɒmɪkl; ˌekə-; US / adj. that costs or uses less time, money, fuel, etc. than usual The new model is a very economical car to run. ▶ (urządzenie itp.) oszczędny  OPPOSITE  uneconomical Por. economic, które ma inne znaczenie.
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economics /ˌi: kəˈnɒmɪks; US ˌekə-; US / noun [uncountable] the study or principles of the way money, business and industry are organized a degree in economics the economics of a company ▶ ekonomia ekonomika
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an economist
economist /ɪˈkɒnəmɪst; US / noun [countable] a person who studies or is an expert in economics ▶ ekonomista
oszczędzać, oszczędnie gospodarować
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economize (also economise) /ɪˈkɒnəmaɪz; US / verb [intransitive] economize (on sth) to save money, time, fuel, etc.; to use less of sth ▶ oszczędzać oszczędnie gospodarować
ekonomia, oszczędność
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economy, saving
2[cou, unco] careful spending of money, time, fuel, etc.; t Our department is making economies in the amount of paper it uses. For reasons of economy, please turn off all unnecessary lights. economy class druga klasa ▶ oszczędność
economy /ɪˈkɒnəmi/ noun (pl. economies) 1(the economy) [countable] the operation of a country’s money supply, commercial activities and industry There are signs of improvement in the economy the economies of America and Japan ▶ gospodarka ekonomia
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ecosystem /ˈi: kəʊsɪstəm; US / noun [countable] all the plants and living creatures in a particular area considered in relation to their physical environment ▶ ekosystem
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Ecotourism is financing rainforest preservation. ▶ ekoturystyka □ ecotourist /-ɪst -tɔ: r-; US / noun [countable] ▶ ekoturyst(k)a
ecotourism /ˈi: kəʊtʊərɪzəm -tɔ: r-; US / noun [uncountable] organized holidays that are designed so that the environment is damaged as little as possible, especially when some of the money the tourists pay is used to protect the local environment
ekstaza, zachwyt
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ecstasy, delight
2(Ecstasy) [uncountable] an illegal drug, taken especially by young people at parties, clubs, etc. ▶ Ecstasy
ecstasy /ˈekstəsi; US / noun [countable, uncountable] 1 (pl. ecstasies) a feeling or state of great happiness to be in ecstasy She went into ecstasies (oszalała z zachwytu) about the ring he had bought her. ▶ ekstaza zachwyt
pełen zachwytu
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ecstatic /ɪkˈstætɪk; US / adj. extremely happy ▶ pełen zachwytu w ekstazie
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ecumenical /ˌi: kju:ˈmenɪkl; US ˌekju:-; US / adj. connected with the idea of uniting all the different parts of the Christian Church ▶ ekumeniczny
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eczema /ˈeksɪmə; US ɪɡˈzi: mə / noun [uncountable] a disease which makes your skin red and dry so that you want to scratch it ▶ egzema

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